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Introduction: The Night Sky

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  1. What do we see in the night sky? the Moon moving planets occasional comets and meteors against a background of randomly scattered “fixed” stars and the band of the Milky Way What do we see here on Earth? a rocky planet with oceans and an atmosphere life that has evolved for more than 3 billion years What has this to do with the stars and the Milky Way? Introduction: The Night Sky Our Evolving Universe

  2. What do we see? Stars have different brightnesses Stars have different colours What would we like to know? What are the stars made of? How far away are they? How do they live and die? How has this influenced life on Earth? How can we learn all this just from what we see in the night sky? The Stars Betelgeuse Rigel Our Evolving Universe

  3. How far away are the stars? ? Earth moves (around Sun) ? see some stars move (against background) ? parallax ? distance of nearest stars = few light years (1 l.y. ≈ 1016 m) ? first measured: 61 Cygni (Bessel, 1838), 11 l.y. ? closest: a Centauri, 4 l.y. Our Evolving Universe

  4. Measuring parallax ? Nearby star seen against background of fainter stars ? motion reflects Earth’s orbit ? the closer the star, the greater the motion ? geometry gives distance R. Pogge, Ohio State Our Evolving Universe

  5. A parallax demo ? Parallax was not observed until 1838 because the stars are so far away that the effect is small ? But what if the starswere much closer (orEarth’s orbit muchlarger)? ? Animation shows effect multiplied byone million Our Evolving Universe

  6. How bright are the stars? ? Are they all the same? ? No! ? the white stars Fomalhaut and Deneb appear almost equally bright, but Deneb is 1500 l.y. away whereas Fomalhaut is only 20 l.y. distant ? Are they like the Sun? ? Sort of… ? almost all the familiar stars are much brighter ? almost all nearby (within 15 l.y.) stars are much fainter ′100 Our Evolving Universe

  7. The magnitude scale ? Astronomers measure brightness in magnitudes: ? larger magnitude = fainter star ? a difference of one magnitude corresponds to a factor of 2.5 in brightness ? absolute magnitude measures the intrinsic brightness of the star (Sun = 4.8); apparent magnitude measures the brightness of the star seen from Earth (Sun = -27) Luminosity (Sun = 1) Absolute visual magnitude (Sun = 4.83) Our Evolving Universe

  8. How big are the stars? ? Very few stars can be imaged as more than just points (even with HST) ? Size usually inferred from brightness ? Vary enormously, from size of small city to beyond orbit of Earth Betelgeuse imaged by HST Capellaimaged by COAST Our Evolving Universe

  9. Weighing stars ? Important for our under-standing of underlying physics ? measure mass on Earth using gravity: scales and springs ? measure mass of stars using gravity: bound pairs of binary stars (fortunately common) ? Are they like the Sun? ? Yes… ? familiar bright stars are a few times more massive ? nearby stars are typically less massive R. Pogge, Ohio State Our Evolving Universe

  10. From the motion of stars in the sky we can find: their distances (if they are close) their masses(if they are binaries) And from studying their images we get: their luminosities (if we know distance) their sizes(if they are large and close) How does the Sun compare? the stars we see in the sky are much brighter and somewhat more massive typical stars near us are much fainter and somewhat less massive the Sun is much better than average, but not a champion! What have we learned? Our Evolving Universe

  11. What have we still to find out? ? “…never, by any means, will we be able to study [the stars’] chemical composition … I am of the opinion that every notion of the true mean temperature of the stars will necessarily always be concealed from us.” Auguste Comte, French philosopher, 1835 ? He was proved wrong only 25 years later by the development of spectroscopy… …next lecture! Our Evolving Universe

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